Continuous configuration and compliance monitoring with AWS Config

Config splash

I wrote previously about inventorying your assets in AWS using an external open source tool.  An alternative to this approach is to use AWS Config.

This AWS service certainly has its imperfections (e.g. it doesn’t support all AWS resources) but it is easy to set up and can be quite useful too. When you first enable it, Config will analyse the resources in your account and make the summary available to you in a dashboard (example below). It’s a regional service, so you might want to enable it in all active regions.

Config

Config, however, doesn’t stop there. You can now use this snapshot as a reference point and track all changes to your resources on a timeline. It can be useful when you need to analyse historical records, demonstrate compliance or gain visibility in your change management practices. It can also notify you of any configuration changes if you set up SNS notifications.

Config rules allow you to continuously track compliance with various baselines. AWS provide quite a few out of the box and you can create your own to tailor to the specific environment you operate in. You have to pay separately for rules, so I encourage you to check out pricing first.

As with some other AWS services, you can aggregate the data in a single account. I recommend using the account used for security operations as a master. You will then need to establish a two-way handshake, inviting member accounts and authorising the master account to be able to consolidate the results.

Member

 


How to detect threats in AWS with GuardDuty

GuardDuty

Once some basic asset management, identity and access management and logging capabilities in AWS have been established, it’s time to move to the threat detection phase of your security programme.

There are several ways to implement threat detection in AWS but by far the easiest (and perhaps cheapest) set up is to use Amazon’s native GuardDuty. It detects root user logins, policy changes, compromised keys, instances, users and more. As an added benefit, Amazon keep adding new rules as they continue evolving the service.

To detect threats in your AWS environment, GuardDuty ingests CloudTrail, VPC FlowLogs and VPC DNS logs. You don’t need to configure these separately for GuardDuty to be able to access them, simplifying the set up. The price of the service depends on the number of events analysed but it comes with a free 30-day trial which allows you to understand the scope, utility and potential costs.

It’s a regional service, so it should be enabled in all regions, even the ones you currently don’t have any resources. You might start using new regions in the future and, perhaps more importantly, the attackers might do it on your behalf. It doesn’t cost extra in the region with no activity, so there is really no excuse to switch it on everywhere.

To streamline the management, I recommend following the AWS guidance on channelling the findings to a single account, where they can be analysed by the security operations team.

Master

It requires establishing master-member relationship between accounts, where the master account will be the one monitored by the security operations team. You will then need to enable GuardDuty in every member account and accept the invite from the master.

You don’t have to rely on the AWS console to access GuardDuty findings, as they can be streamed using CloudWatch Events and Kinesis to centralise the analysis. You can also write custom rules specific to your environment and mute existing ones customising the implementation. These, however, require a bit more practice, so I will cover them in future blogs.


Securing GSuite: a guide for startups

GSuite

GSuite is an excellent choice for any startup, especially early in the process of establishing your business. Its flexible cost structure allows you to pay per user while benefiting from range of services, including email (with a custom domain name), calendar, document collaboration and storage, videoconferencing and much more.

GSuite, being a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), relieves you from the underlying infrastructure management in line with the shared responsibility model. This can be especially powerful for smaller companies trying out an idea, as it doesn’t require intensive capital expenditure to set up a datacentre or staff to maintain it. Startups, however, are still responsible for the data, permissions and overall configuration of GSuite if they want to keep their information secure.

Thankfully, Google made available a short checklist for small businesses, describing the necessary steps to safeguard company data. Similar guidance is available for larger (100+ users) organisations.

Settings 2

The plan you select will determine how many security features are available to you. Depending on the criticality of your data and the amount of control you require, it can be a good idea to upgrade to the Enterprise plan.

Hint: if you ask customer support to put you in touch with a sales representative and request a discount, it might just be given to you. Provided you are willing to commit to the subscription for a couple of years.

DashboardSecurity professionals will feel at home with the advanced features available after the upgrade. It includes encryption, data leakage prevention (DLP), granular access control and much more. Managing it is also going to become easier, as various reports and healthcheck dashboards are now at your fingertips.

Settings

Regardless of the plan you use, it won’t hurt to enable multi-factor authentication on all accounts, as it dramatically reduces the risk of account takeover. It might also be a good idea to backup your critical business data somewhere off GSuite for extra resiliency.


How to prevent committing secrets in code

detect-secrets

Committing passwords, SSH keys and API keys to your code repositories is quite common. This doesn’t make it less dangerous. Yes, if you are ‘moving fast and breaking things’, it is sometimes easier to take shortcuts to simplify development and testing. But these broken things will eventually have to be fixed, as security of your product and perhaps even company, is at risk. Fixing things later in the development cycle is likely be more complicated and costly.

I’m not trying to scaremonger, there are already plenty of news articles about data breaches wiping out value for companies. My point is merely about the fact that it is much easier to address things early in the development, rather than waiting for a pentest or, worse still, a malicious attacker to discover these vulnerabilities.

Disciplined engineering and teaching your staff secure software development are certainly great ways to tackle this. There has to, however, be a fallback mechanism to detect (and prevent) mistakes. Thankfully, there are a number of open-source tools that can help you with that:

You will have to assess your own environment to pick the right tool that suits your organisation best.

If you read my previous blogs on integrating application testing and detecting vulnerable dependencies, you know I’m a big fan of embedding such tests in your Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) pipeline. This provides instant feedback to your development team and minimises the window between discovering and fixing a vulnerability. If done right, the weakness (a secret in the code repository in this case) will not even reach the production environment, as it will be caught before the code is committed. An example is on the screenshot at the top of the page.

For this reason (and a few others), the tool that I particularly like is detect-secrets, developed in Python and kindly open-sourced by Yelp. They describe the reasons for building it and explain the architecture in their blog. It’s lightweight, language agnostic and integrates well in the development workflow. It relies on pre-commit hooks and will not scan the whole repository – only the chunk of code you are committing.

Yelp’s detect-secrets, however, has its limitations. It needs to be installed locally by engineers which might be tricky with different operating systems. If you do want to use it but don’t want to be restricted by local installation, it can also run out of a container, which can be quite handy.


How to set up CloudTrail logging in AWS

I bet you already know that you should set up CloudTrail in your AWS accounts, if you haven’t already. This service captures all the API activity taking place in your AWS account and stores it in an S3 bucket for that account by default. This means you would have to configure the logging and storage permissions for every AWS account your company has. If you are tasked with securing your cloud infrastructure, you will first need to establish how many accounts your organisation owns and how CloudTrail is configured for them. Additionally, you would want to have access to S3 buckets storing these logs in every account to be able to analyse them.

If this doesn’t sound complicated already, think of a potential error in permissions where logs can be deleted by an account administrator. Or situations where new accounts are created without your awareness and therefore not part of the overall logging pipeline. Luckily, these scenarios can be avoided if you are using the Organization Trail.

Create Trail

Your accounts have to be part of the same AWS Organization, of course. You would also need to have a separate account for security operations. Hopefully, this has been done already. If not, feel free to refer to my previous blogs on inventorying your assets and IAM fundamentals for further guidance on setting it up.

Establishing an Organization Trail not only allows you to collect, store and analyse logs centrally, it also ensures all new accounts created will have CloudTrail enabled and configured by default (and it cannot be turned off by child accounts).

Trails

Switch on Insights while you’re at it. This will simply the analysis down the line, alerting unusual API activity. Logging data events (for both S3 and Lambda) and integrating with CloudWatch Logs is also a good idea.

Where can all these logs be stored? The best destination (before archiving) is the S3 bucket in your account used for security operations, so that’s where it should be created.

S3 bucket

Enabling encryption and Object Lock is always a good idea. While encryption will help with confidentiality of your log data, Object Lock will ensure redundancy and prevent objects from accidental deletion. It requires versioning to be enabled and is best configured on bucket creation. Don’t forget to block public access!

S3 block public access

You must then use your organisational root account to set up Organization Trail, selecting the bucket you created in your operational security account as a destination (rather than creating a new bucket in your master account).

For this to work, you will need to set up appropriate permissions on that bucket. It is also advisable to set up access for child accounts to be able to read their own logs.

If you had other trails in your accounts previously, feel free to turn them off to avoid unnecessary duplication and save money. It’s best to give it a day for these trails to run in parallel though to ensure nothing is lost in transition. Keep your old S3 buckets used for collection in your accounts previously; you will need these logs too. You can configure lifecycle policies and perhaps transfer them to Glacier to save on storage costs later.

And that’s how you set up CloudTrail for centralised collection, storage and analysis.


How to secure a tech startup

scrum_boardIf you work for or (even better) co-founded a tech startup, you are already busy. Hopefully not too busy to completely ignore security, but definitely busy enough to implement one of the industrial security frameworks, like the NIST Cybersecurity Framework (CSF). Although the CSF and other standards are useful, implementing them in a small company might be resource intensive.

I previously wrote about security for startups. In this blog, I would like to share some ideas for activities you might consider (in no particular order) instead of implementing a security standard straight away. The individual elements and priorities will, of course, vary depending on your business type and needs and this list is not exhaustive.

Product security

Information security underpins all products and services to offer customers an innovative and frictionless experience.

  • Improve product security, robustness and stability through secure software development process
  • Automate security tests and prevent secrets in code
  • Upgrade vulnerable dependencies
  • Secure the delivery pipeline

Cloud infrastructure security

To deliver resilient and secure service to build customer trust.

  • Harden cloud infrastructure configuration
  • Improve identity and access management practices
  • Develop logging and monitoring capability
  • Reduce attack surface and costs by decommissioning unused resources in the cloud
  • Secure communications and encrypt sensitive data at rest and in transit

Operations security

To prevent regulatory fines, potential litigation and loss of customer trust due to accidental mishandling, external system compromise or insider threat leading to exposure of customer personal data.

  • Enable device (phone and laptop) encryption and automatic software updates
  • Make a password manager available to your staff (and enforce a password policy)
  • Improve email security (including anti-phishing protections)
  • Implement mobile device management to enforce security policies
  • Invest in malware prevention capability
  • Segregate access and restrict permissions to critical assets
  • Conduct security awareness and training

Cyber resilience

To prepare for, respond to and recover from cyber attacks while delivering a consistent level of service to customers.

  • Identify and focus on protecting most important assets
  • Develop (and test) an incident response plan
  • Collect and analyse logs for fraud and attacks
  • Develop anomaly detection capability
  • Regular backups of critical data
  • Disaster recovery and business continuity planning

Compliance and data protection

To demonstrate to business partners, regulators, suppliers and customers the commitment to security and privacy and act as a brand differentiator. To prevent revenue loss and reputational damage due to fines and unwanted media attention as a result of GDPR non compliance.

  • Ensure lawfulness, fairness, transparency, data minimisation, security, accountability, purpose and storage limitation when processing personal data
  • Optimise subject access request process
  • Maintain data inventory and mapping
  • Conduct privacy impact assessments on new projects
  • Data classification and retention
  • Vendor risk management
  • Improve governance and risk management practices

Image by Lennon Shimokawa.


The evolution of cyber security – Defence Online

Defence online.pngI wrote for Defence Online on transparency in cyber security. Feel free to check out the article on their website.


How to integrate application security testing in the CI/CD pipeline

ZAP.png

In this blog I’m going to build on my previous posts on agile security, DevSecOps culture and managing vulnerabilities in open source libraries to talk about automating application security testing.

Read the rest of this entry »


How to audit your AWS environment

Cloudmapper

Let’s build on my previous blog on inventorying your AWS assets. I described how to use CloudMapper‘s collect command to gather metadata about your AWS accounts and report on resources used and potential security issues.

This open source tool can do more than that and it’s functionality is being continuously updated. Once the data on the accounts in scope is downloaded, various operations can be performed on it locally without the need to continuously query the accounts.

One of interesting use cases is to visualise your AWS environment in the browser. An example based on the test data of such a visualisation is at the top of this blog. You can apply various filters to reduce complexity which can be especially useful for larger environments.

Another piece of CloudMapper’s functionality is the ability to display trust relationships between accounts using the weboftrust command. Below is an example from Scott’s guidance on the use of this command. It demonstrates the connections between accounts, including external vendors.

weboftrust

I’m not going co cover all the commands here and suggest checking the official GitHub page for the latest list. I also recommend running CloudMapper regularly, especially in environments that constantly evolve.

An approach of that conducts regular audits. saving reports and integrating with Slack for security alerts is described here.


Netrunner: what infosec might look like in the future

Netrunner

Android: Netrunner is a two-player card game that can teach you a great deal about cyber security. It’s fun to play too.

Bad news first: although initially intended as a ‘living card game’ with constantly evolving gameplay, this game has now been discontinued, so no expansions will be published, limiting the community interest, ongoing deckbuilding and tournaments.

Now to the good news, which is pretty much the rest of this blog. None of the above can stop you from enjoying this great game. You can still acquire the initial core set which contains all you need for casual play.

The premise of this game is simple: mega corporations control all aspects of our lives and hackers (known as runners) oppose them. I know it was supposed to be set in the dystopian cyberpunk future, but some of the elements of it are coming to life sooner than expected since the original game release in 1996.

Runners

The runners vary in their abilities that closely align to their motivation: money, intellectual curiosity, disdain for corporations. Corporations have their core competencies too. Again, just like in real life. The core set I mentioned earlier consists of seven pre-built, and balanced by creators, decks: three for runners and four for corporations with their unique play styles.

The game is asymmetrical with different win conditions: runners are trying to hack into corporations’ networks to steal sensitive information (known as agendas in the game) and corporations are aiming to defend their assets to achieve their objectives (advance agendas). This masterfully highlights the red team versus blue team tension commonplace in today’s infosec community.

Troubleshooter

A corporation has to adapt to evolving threats posed by hackers installing protective devices and conducting defensive operations all the while generating revenue to fund these projects and reach their targets to win the game. It’s not only about defence for the corporation either. Today’s “hacking back” debate got apparently settled in the future, with corporations being able to trap, tag and trace hackers to inflict real damage, as an alternative win condition.

Cyberfeeder

Runners differ vastly in methods to penetrate corporation’s defences and have to take care of an economy of their own: all these cutting edge hacking consoles cost money and memory units. Example cards in runner’s toolbox sometimes closely resemble modern methods (e.g. siphoning off corp’s accounts) and sometimes gaze far into the future with brain-machine interfaces to speed up the process.

Basic rules are simple but there are plenty of intricate details that make players think about strategy and tactics. It’s a game of bluff, risk and careful calculation. There’s also an element of chance in it, which teaches you to be able to make the best use of resources you currently have and adapt accordingly.

It’s not an educational game but you can learn some interesting security concepts while playing, as you are forced to think like a hacker taking chances and exploiting weaknesses or a defender trying to protect your secrets. All you need is the deck of cards and someone to play with.