When building a house you would not consider starting the planning, and certainly not the build itself, without the guidance of an architect. Throughout this process you would use a number of experts such as plumbers, electricians and carpenters. If each individual expert was given a blank piece of paper to design and implement their aspect of the property with no collaboration with the other specialists and no architectural blueprint, then it’s likely the house would be difficult and costly to maintain, look unattractive and not be easy to live in. It’s highly probable that the installation of such aspects would not be in time with each other, therefore causing problems at a later stage when, for example, the plastering has been completed before the wiring is complete.
This analogy can be applied to security architecture, with many companies implementing different systems at different times with little consideration of how other experts will implement their ideas, often without realising they are doing it. This, like the house build, will impact on the overarching effectiveness of the security strategy and will in turn impact employees, clients and the success of the company.
For both of the above, an understanding of the baseline requirements, how these may change in the future and overall framework is essential for a successful project. Over time, building regulations and practices have evolved to help the house building process and we see the same in the security domain; with industry standards being developed and shared to help overcome some of these challenges.
The approach I use when helping clients with their security architecture is outlined below.
I begin by understanding the business, gathering requirements and analysing risks. Defining current and target states leads to assessing the gaps between them and developing the roadmap that aims to close these gaps.
I prefer to start the security architecture development cycle from the top by defining security strategy and outlining how lower levels of the architecture support it, linking them to business objectives. But this approach is adjusted based on the specific needs.
This is one of these blog posts with no content. I just really wanted to share some pics from one of the coolest cities I had a privilege to live and work in for the past few months.
Let’s talk about applying the SABSA framework to design an architecture that would solve a specific business problem. In this blog post I’ll be using a fictitious example of a public sector entity aiming to roll-out an accommodation booking service for tourists visiting the country.
To ensure that security meets the needs of the business we’re going to go through the layers of the SABSA architecture from top to bottom.
Start by reading your company’s business strategy, goals and values, have a look at the annual report. Getting the business level attributes from these documents should be straightforward. There’s no need to invent anything new – business stakeholders have already defined what’s important to them.
Every single word in these documents has been reviewed and changed potentially hundreds of times. Therefore, there’s usually a good level of buy-in on the vision. Simply use the same language for your business level attributes.
After analysing the strategy of my fictitious public sector client I’m going to settle for the following attributes: Stable, Respected, Trusted, Reputable, Sustainable, Competitive. Detailed definitions for these attributes are agreed with the business stakeholders.
Next step is to link these to the broader objectives for technology. Your CIO or CTO might be able to assist with these. In my example, the Technology department has already done the hard job of translating high-level business requirements into a set of IT objectives. Your task is just distill these into attributes:
Now it’s up to you to define security attributes based on the Technology and Infrastructure attributes above. The examples might be attributes like Available, Confidential, Access-Controlled and so on.
The next step would be to highlight or define relationships between attributes on each level:
These attributes show how security supports the business and allows for two-way tracebility of requirements. It can be used for risk management, assurance and architecture projects.
Back to our case study. Let’s consider a specific example of developing a hotel booking application for a public sector client we’ve started out with. To simplify the scenario, we will limit the application functionality requirements to the following list:
|P001||Register Accommodation||Enable the registration of temporary accommodations available|
|P002||Update Availability||Enable accommodation managers to update availability status|
|P003||Search Availability||Allow international travellers to search and identify available accommodation|
|P004||Book Accommodation||Allow international travellers to book accommodation|
|P005||Link to other departments||Allow international travellers to link to other departments and agencies such as the immigration or security services (re-direct)|
And here is how the process map would look like:
There are a number of stakeholders involved within the government serving international travellers’ requests. Tourists can access Immigration Services to get information on visa requirements and Security Services for safety advice. The application itself is owned by the Ministry of Tourism which acts as the “face” of this interaction and provides access to Tourist Board approved options. External accommodation (e.g. hotel chains) register and update their offers on the government’s website.
The infrastructure is outsourced to an external cloud service provider and there are mobile applications available, but these details are irrelevant for the current abstraction level.
From the Trust Modelling perspective, the relationship will look like this:
Subdomain policy is derived from, and compliant with, super domain but has specialised local interpretation authorised by super domain authority. The government bodies act as Policy Authorities (PA) owning the overall risk of the interaction.
At this stage we might want to re-visit some of the attributes we defined previously to potentially narrow them down to only the ones applicable to the process flows in scope. We will focus on making sure the transactions are trusted:
Let’s overlay applicable attributes over process flows to understand requirements for security:
Now it’s time to go down a level and step into more detailed Designer’s View. Remember requirement “P004 – Book Accommodation” I’ve mentioned above? Below is the information flow for this transaction. In most cases, someone else would’ve drawn these for you.
With security attributes applied (the direction of orange arrows define the expectation of a particular attribute being met):
These are the exact attributes we identified as relevant for this transaction on the business process map above. It’s ok if you uncover additional security attributes at this stage. If that’s the case, feel free to add them retrospectively to your business process map at the Conceptual Architecture level.
After the exercise above is completed for each interaction, it’s time to go down to the Physical Architecture level and define specific security services for each attribute for every transaction:
At the Component Architecture level, it’s important to define solution-specific mechanisms, components and activities for each security service above. Here is a simplified example for confidentiality and integrity protection for data at rest and in-transit:
|Service||Physical mechanism||Component brands, tools, products or technical standards||Service Management activities required to manage the solution through-life|
|Message confidentiality protection||Message encryption||IPSec VPN||Key management, Configuration Management, Change management|
|Stored data confidentiality protection||Data encryption||AES 256 Disk Encryption||Key management, Configuration Management, Change management|
|Message integrity protection||Checksum||SHA 256 Hash||Key management, Configuration Management, Change management|
|Stored data integrity protection||Checksum||SHA 256 Hash||Key management, Configuration Management, Change management|
As you can see, every specific security mechanism and component is now directly and traceable linked to business requirements. And that’s one of the ways you demonstrate the value of security using the SABSA framework.
Governments across Europe recognised that with increased interconnectiveness a cyber incident can affect multiple entities spanning across a number of countries. Moreover, impact and frequency of cyber attacks is at all-time high with recent examples including:
- 2017 WannaCry ransomware attack
- 2016 attacks on US water utilities
- 2015 attack on Ukraine’s electricity network
In order to manage cyber risk, the European Union introduced the Network and Information Systems (NIS) Directive which requires all Member States to protect their critical national infrastructure by implementing cyber security legislation.
Each Member State is required to set their own rules on financial penalties and must take the necessary measures to ensure that they are implemented. For example, in the UK fines, can be up to £17 million.
And yes, in case you are wondering, the UK government has confirmed that the Directive will apply irrespective of Brexit (the NIS Regulations come into effect before the UK leaves the EU).
Who does the NIS Directive apply to?
The law applies to:
- Operators of Essential Services that are established in the EU
- Digital Service Providers that offer services to persons within the EU
The sectors affected by the NIS Directive are:
- Health (hospitals, private clinics)
- Energy (gas, oil, electricity)
- Transport (rail, road, maritime, air)
- Digital infrastructure and service providers (e.g. DNS service providers)
- Financial Services (only in certain Member States e.g. Germany)
NIS Directive objectives
In the UK the NIS Regulations will be implemented in the form of outcome-focused principles rather than prescriptive rules.
National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) is the UK single point of contact for the legislation. They published top level objectives with underlying security principles.
- A1. Governance
- A2. Risk management
- A3. Asset management
- A4. Supply chain
- B1. Service protection policies and processes
- B2. Identity and access control
- B3. Data security
- B4. System security
- B5. Resilient networks and systems
- B6. Staff awareness
- C1. Security monitoring
- C2. Proactive security event discovery
- D1. Response and recovery planning
- D2. Lessons learned
Table view of principles and related guidance is also available on the NCSC website.
Cyber Assessment Framework
The implementation of the NIS Directive can only be successful if Competent Authorities can adequately assess the cyber security of organisations is scope. To assist with this, NCSC developed the Cyber Assessment Framework (CAF).
The Framework is based on the 14 outcomes-based principles of the NIS Regulations outlined above. Adherence to each principle is determined based on how well associated outcomes are met. See below for an example:
Each outcome is assessed based upon Indicators of Good Practice (IGPs), which are statements that can either be true or false for a particular organisation.
If your organisation is in the scope of the NIS Directive, it is useful to conduct an initial self-assessment using the CAF described above as an starting point of reference. Remember, formal self-assessment will be required by your Competent Authority, so it is better not to delay this crucial step.
Establishing an early dialogue with the Competent Authority is essential as this will not only help you establish the scope of the assessment (critical assets), but also allow you to receive additional guidance from them.
Initial self-assessment will most probably highlight some gaps. It is important to outline a plan to address these gaps and share it with your Competent Authority. Make sure you keep incident response in mind at all times. The process has to be well-defined to allow you report NIS-specific incidents to your Competent Authority within 72 hours.
Remediate the findings in the agreed time frames and monitor on-going compliance and potential changes in requirements, maintaining the dialogue with the Competent Authority.
I’ve spend last week in Vienna at the annual intergovernmental conference focused on protecting critical energy infrastructure.
The first two days were dedicated to the issues of security and diplomacy.
A number of panel discussions, talks and workshops covered the following topics:
- Implementing the EU strategy for safe, open and secure cyberspace
- Cyber-threats to critical energy infrastructure
- Operational resilience
- Reducing the risks of conflicts stemming from the use of cyber-capabilities
- Cyber-diplomacy: developing capacity and trust between states
For the rest of the conference we moved from the Diplomatic Academy of Vienna to Tech Gate, a science and technology park and home to a number of local cyber startups.
We’ve discussed trends in technology and cyber security, participated in Cyber Range simulation tutorial and a scenario-based exercise on policy development to address the growing cyber-threat to the energy sector.
AIT Austrian Institute of Technology together with WKO Austrian Economic Chambers, ASW Austrian Defence and Security Industry, and the Austrian Cyber Security Cluster hosted a technology exhibition of latest solutions and products as well as R&D projects.
Participants had an opportunity to see state-of-the-art of next generation solutions and meet key experts in the field of cyber security for protecting critical infrastructures to fight against cyber-crime and terrorism.
Talks continued throughout the week with topics covering:
- Securing the energy economy: oil, gas, electricity and nuclear
- Emerging and future threats to digitalised energy systems
- Cyber security standards in critical energy infrastructure
- Public sector, industry and research cooperation in cyber security
- Securing critical energy infrastructures by understanding global energy markets
The last day focused on innovation and securing the emerging technologies. The CIO of City of Vienna delivered an insightful presentation about on cities and security implications of digitalisation. A closing panel discussed projected trends and emerging areas of technology, approaches and methods for verifying and securing new technologies and the future of the cyber threat.
HutZero, an early-stage entrepreneur bootcamp, kindly prepared a list of books and websites recommended for aspiring cyber start-up founders.
The Lean Startup, Eric Reis
Business Model Generation, Alexander Osterwalder, Yves Pigneur
The Mom Test, Rob Fitzpatrick
Lean Analytics, Alistair Croll, Benjamin Yoskovitz
To Sell Is Human, Daniel H. Pink
Start with Why, Simon Sinek
The Purple Cow, Seth Godin
Lean UX, Jeff Gothelf, Josh Seiden
Made to Stick, Chip Heath, Dan Heath
The Four Steps to the Epiphany, Steve Blank
Do More Faster: Lessons from TechStars, Brad Feld, David Cohen
Fundraising Field Guide, Carlos Espinal
Wired Threat Level
Krebs On Security
The Next Web
Tech City News
Buffer Blog (marketing)
Fred Wilson’s Blog, A VC
Brad Feld’s Blog (Techstars)
KissMetrics Blog (marketing)
Both Sides of the Table
I am pleased, honoured and humbled to receive the “Best Cyber Security Speaker 2017” award.