How to respond to a security incident

In this blog I would like to outline a process of responding to a security incident, including a breach of personal data. It is intended to be high-level in nature to allow for adaptation to different types of incidents and specific needs of your organisation.

There are many definitions of a security incident out there. I prefer this one: a security incident is an attempted or successful unauthorised access, use, theft, disclosure, modification or destruction of information, or interference with or misuse of information processing infrastructure, applications and data. A personal data breach is one of the types of a security incident which occurs when personal information is subject to loss or unauthorised access, use, disclosure, copying or modification.

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Cyber security in divestments

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A company may divest its assets for a number of reasons: political, social or purely financial in order to free up resources to focus on core business. Regulators may also demand a divestment to prevent one company holding a monopoly. When such a decision is made, the security function can support the business by managing risks during this process. These risks not only include the obvious legal and regulatory compliance ones, but also risks related to business disruption and leaks of intellectual property or other sensitive information. Security teams can also help the business identify value adding opportunities through, for instance, saving costs on software licenses.

The scale of divestments vary and depend on the nature of the organisation: they can range from a single subsidiary to a whole division. Information usually accompanies physical assets, which opens up potential challenges with data governance when these assets change hands. The magnitude of such risks differ depending on specific conditions of the deal, for example:

  • Number of assets is scope
  • Criticality of assets
  • Location of assets and applicable jurisdictions

In my experience, divestments are almost always associated with aggressive timelines for completion usually in the form of legally binding agreements. Therefore, as a security professional, the last thing you want to do is to slow down the process and prevent the business from meeting these timelines.

You need to balance this, however, with the risk exposure. It helps when the security team gets involved early to support the process from the start. All too often, however, the business can be asking for security sign-off after the finalisation of the deal. This can be disappointing, particularly when a number of data transfer requirements have already been violated.

So if you’re one of the lucky ones, and the business is asking for your advice on divesting securely, what should you tell them? What areas do you consider? Here are some examples to get you started:

  • Information asset inventories and data maps. These might include data, software and infrastructure assets. You can’t help securely transfer something you don’t know exists. Start with establishing visibility and interdependencies.
  • Access control. Who has access to what? Do they need that access? Will they need that access in the future? Segregation of duties and least privilege principles are not just abstract philosophical concepts – they have real applications when it comes to divestments.
  • Consider legal and regulatory requirements when it comes to data asset transfer, retention and disposal. Involve your legal team, but don’t forget about technical controls, like encryption and secure data wipes.
  • Availability of skilled resource and mature IT function on the ‘buy’ side. Remember, whoever is buying the assets must have their infrastructure ready to support the acquisition and integration of new assets. Despite being perceived as a ‘buyer’s problem’, risks like that can negatively impact the overall project and should be considered.

All in all, the divestment process can be challenging but the early integration of security professionals ensures the appropriate oversight is given to all relevant areas for a smooth transfer to the buyer.

Image by Jason Kuffer.


What can a US Army General teach us about security?

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General Douglas MacMarthur said “never give an order that can’t be obeyed”. This is sound advice, as doing so can diminish the commander’s authority. If people want to do what you are asking them to do, but can’t, they would doubt your judgement in the future.

Despite the fact that most of us operate in commercial organisations rather than the US Army, there are some lessons to be learned from this.

Security professionals don’t need to rally their troops and rarely operate in command-and-control environments. Their role has largely shifted to the one of an advisor to the business when it comes to managing cyber risk. Yet all too often advice they give is misguided. In an effort to protect the business they sometimes fail to grasp the wider context in which it operates. More importantly, they rarely consider their colleagues who will have to follow their guidance.

Angela Sasse gives a brilliant example of this when she talks about phishing. Security professionals expect people to be able to identify a phishing email in order to keep the company secure. Through numerous awareness sessions they tell them how dangerous it is to click on a link in a phishing email.

Although it makes sense to some extent, it’s not helpful to expect people to be able to recognise a phishing email 100% of the times. In fact, a lot of information security professionals might struggle to make that distinction themselves, especially when it comes to more sophisticated cases of spear phishing. So how can we expect people who are not information security specialists to measure up?

To make matters worse, most of modern enterprises depend on email with links to be productive. It is considered normal and part of business as usual to receive an email and click on the link in it. I heard of a scenario where a company hired an external agency and paid good money for surveying their employees. Despite advance warnings, the level of engagement with this survey was reduced as people were reporting these external emails as “phishing attempts”. The communications team was not pleased and that certainly didn’t help establish the productive relationship with the security team.

The bottom line is that if your defences depend on people not clicking on links, you can do better than that. The aim is not to punish people when they make a mistake, but to build trust. The security team should therefore be there to support people and recognise their challenges rather than police them.

After all, when someone does eventually click on a malicious link, it’s much better if they pick up the phone to the security team and admit their mistake rather than hope it doesn’t get noticed. Not only does this speed-up incident response, it fosters the role of the security professional as a business enabler, rather than a commander who keeps giving orders that can’t be obeyed.


Time for something new

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After six years with KPMG’s Cyber Security practice I decided it was time to take on a new challenge. It was a great pleasure helping clients from various industry sectors solve their security issues and I certainly learned a lot and met many fantastic people.

A digital venture incubation firm has partnered with a world leader in visas and identity management to found a new London-based venture that is creating a frictionless travel experience. 

I joined this tech startup as the Head of Information Security and couldn’t pass on this opportunity to be one of the early members of the leadership team. 

I’ll be driving the security and compliance agenda, adjusting to the needs of the dynamic and growing business. I can’t wait to put the skills I learned in consulting into practice and contribute to this company.

I’ll have an opportunity to help create a trusted, seamless, user centred visa application process for consumers and businesses alike, through automation and a cutting edge technology. And that’s exciting!


ISACA young professionals

I’ve been interviewed for the launch of the ISACA Young Professionals portal that contains a wealth of information for starting and accelerating your career in IT audit and cybersecurity.

I decided to contribute because ISACA played a role in my career development too.

I started attending ISACA London chapter events while I was studying for my Master’s degree in London. Although the university provided a great theoretical foundation on information security, I wanted to know about the real-world challenges that practitioners in the industry were facing.

At the time I had just finished writing my thesis after doing some great research at the university and I wanted to share my findings and the research of my colleagues with the community. The organisers were supportive, so we agreed a day and I delivered a talk on resolving conflicts between security compliance and human behaviour.

It was a rewarding experience as the participants provided some valuable insights and feedback; they helped to bridge the gap between academia and real practical experience. I already had a solid foundation from my postgraduate degree but I was missing was some anecdotes and real life stories about how this could apply in practice. This laid the foundation for my book The Psychology of Information Security.

It worked out for me, but should you get involved in broader activities beyond developing your technical skills? I would say yes.

The value of technical skills and knowledge can’t be overestimated. But there’s another side to this story. Prospective employers are not only looking for technical experts, they want people who are good team players, who can collaborate and communicate effectively with others, who can organise and get things done, who can lead. Getting involved with the community and volunteering gives you the chance to develop and demonstrate these non-technical skills and grow your professional network.

Regardless of where you are on your journey, ISACA provides great opportunities to advance your career through courses, networking and certification programmes, so I highly recommend getting involved!

Read my story on ISACA Blog.


Developing an information security strategy

I wrote previously on how to assess your threat landscape and what your priorities should be when you start developing a security programme in a new company.

In this blog, I would like to dig deeper and talk about how you actually develop a security strategy with some illustrative examples. You can then use these to further refine your security architecture.

As always, we would start with a Why. Why is security important for your business? Well, you will need to help your stakeholders understand that security can help build customer trust and become a brand differentiator.

And how can this be achieved? To keep this simple, let’s zoom in on three priorities:

  • Support the business. Embed security into the business by ensuring alignment to business strategy
  • Risk-based approach. Pragmatic and prioritised security controls, advice, guidance and information security expertise for the business
  • Focus. Centre on protecting the most important assets and understanding the threats

The aim could be to arrive to a state where security underpins all products and services to offer customers a frictionless experience.

Talking to your business stakeholders will help you understand your company’s wider goals and strategy. Let’s imagine for a second that these conversations revealed that your organisation, like many others, ultimately want to grow their revenue. They also identified that the way they are going to grow their revenue is through increasing sales, building customer trust, improving products and services and scaling operations to better meet customers’ needs.

Vulnerable product, misconfigured infrastructure, insecure operations, inadequate compliance regime and inability to withstand incidents all prevent the business from achieving its objectives.

Strategy

You can now prioritise your security activities to align with these objectives, for example by grouping them into product, infrastructure and people security, as well as wider compliance and resilience objectives.

Timeline

Remember, the above is just an indicative timeline. The reality will very much depend on your organisation’s priorities, maturity and resource availability.


The first 100 days as a CISO

Lifecycle

What should you do in your 100 days in a new company? In short, you should find a way to support the business and present it in a way that is understood and accepted. Communicate broadly and often to ensure constant alignment. Measure your progress in a meaningful way to demonstrate the value to the business.

Roadmap

  • Get buy in

Validate top assets, threats and risks. Obtain leadership support on next steps.

  • Baseline where you are

Understand business requirements, technological and regulatory landscape. Perform interviews and review existing product and documentation.

  • Work out what needs to be done

Recommend security improvements to address risks and align with business strategic priorities.

  • Make it happen

Preparing people, establishing good practice and implementing the right technologies and processes.

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