IT Governance Publishing named me the author of the month and kindly provided a 20% discount on my book.
There’s an interview available in a form of a podcast, where I discuss the most significant challenges related to change management and organisational culture; the common causes of a poor security culture my advice for improving the information security culture in your organisation.
ITGP also made one of the chapters of the audio version of my book available for free – I hope you enjoy it!
If you would rather listen to an audio while driving, exercising or commuting, this version is for you. The book has intentionally been kept to the point which means you can finish the audio in slightly over two hours. The fact that it costs the equivalent of two cups of coffee is an added benefit.
I know I’m slightly biased here, but I highly recommend it!
To support my firm’s corporate and social responsibility efforts, I volunteered to help NSPCC, a charity working in child protection, understand the Internet of Toys and its security and privacy implications.
I hope the efforts in this area will result in better policymaking and raise awareness among children and parents about the risks and threats posed by connected devices.
Toys are different from other connected devices not only because how they are normally used, but also who uses them.
For example, children may tell secrets to their toys, sharing particularly sensitive information with them. This, combined with often insufficient security considerations by the manufacturers, may be a cause for concern.
Apart from helping NSPCC in creating campaign materials and educating the staff on the threat landscape, we were able to suggest a high-level framework to assess the security of a connected toy, consisting of parental control, privacy and technology security considerations.
Let’s talk about applying the SABSA framework to design an architecture that would solve a specific business problem. In this blog post I’ll be using a fictitious example of a public sector entity aiming to roll-out an accommodation booking service for tourists visiting the country.
To ensure that security meets the needs of the business we’re going to go through the layers of the SABSA architecture from top to bottom.
Start by reading your company’s business strategy, goals and values, have a look at the annual report. Getting the business level attributes from these documents should be straightforward. There’s no need to invent anything new – business stakeholders have already defined what’s important to them.
Every single word in these documents has been reviewed and changed potentially hundreds of times. Therefore, there’s usually a good level of buy-in on the vision. Simply use the same language for your business level attributes.
After analysing the strategy of my fictitious public sector client I’m going to settle for the following attributes: Stable, Respected, Trusted, Reputable, Sustainable, Competitive. Detailed definitions for these attributes are agreed with the business stakeholders.
Next step is to link these to the broader objectives for technology. Your CIO or CTO might be able to assist with these. In my example, the Technology department has already done the hard job of translating high-level business requirements into a set of IT objectives. Your task is just distill these into attributes:
Now it’s up to you to define security attributes based on the Technology and Infrastructure attributes above. The examples might be attributes like Available, Confidential, Access-Controlled and so on.
The next step would be to highlight or define relationships between attributes on each level:
These attributes show how security supports the business and allows for two-way tracebility of requirements. It can be used for risk management, assurance and architecture projects.
Back to our case study. Let’s consider a specific example of developing a hotel booking application for a public sector client we’ve started out with. To simplify the scenario, we will limit the application functionality requirements to the following list:
|P001||Register Accommodation||Enable the registration of temporary accommodations available|
|P002||Update Availability||Enable accommodation managers to update availability status|
|P003||Search Availability||Allow international travellers to search and identify available accommodation|
|P004||Book Accommodation||Allow international travellers to book accommodation|
|P005||Link to other departments||Allow international travellers to link to other departments and agencies such as the immigration or security services (re-direct)|
And here is how the process map would look like:
There are a number of stakeholders involved within the government serving international travellers’ requests. Tourists can access Immigration Services to get information on visa requirements and Security Services for safety advice. The application itself is owned by the Ministry of Tourism which acts as the “face” of this interaction and provides access to Tourist Board approved options. External accommodation (e.g. hotel chains) register and update their offers on the government’s website.
The infrastructure is outsourced to an external cloud service provider and there are mobile applications available, but these details are irrelevant for the current abstraction level.
From the Trust Modelling perspective, the relationship will look like this:
Subdomain policy is derived from, and compliant with, super domain but has specialised local interpretation authorised by super domain authority. The government bodies act as Policy Authorities (PA) owning the overall risk of the interaction.
At this stage we might want to re-visit some of the attributes we defined previously to potentially narrow them down to only the ones applicable to the process flows in scope. We will focus on making sure the transactions are trusted:
Let’s overlay applicable attributes over process flows to understand requirements for security:
Now it’s time to go down a level and step into more detailed Designer’s View. Remember requirement “P004 – Book Accommodation” I’ve mentioned above? Below is the information flow for this transaction. In most cases, someone else would’ve drawn these for you.
With security attributes applied (the direction of orange arrows define the expectation of a particular attribute being met):
These are the exact attributes we identified as relevant for this transaction on the business process map above. It’s ok if you uncover additional security attributes at this stage. If that’s the case, feel free to add them retrospectively to your business process map at the Conceptual Architecture level.
After the exercise above is completed for each interaction, it’s time to go down to the Physical Architecture level and define specific security services for each attribute for every transaction:
At the Component Architecture level, it’s important to define solution-specific mechanisms, components and activities for each security service above. Here is a simplified example for confidentiality and integrity protection for data at rest and in-transit:
|Service||Physical mechanism||Component brands, tools, products or technical standards||Service Management activities required to manage the solution through-life|
|Message confidentiality protection||Message encryption||IPSec VPN||Key management, Configuration Management, Change management|
|Stored data confidentiality protection||Data encryption||AES 256 Disk Encryption||Key management, Configuration Management, Change management|
|Message integrity protection||Checksum||SHA 256 Hash||Key management, Configuration Management, Change management|
|Stored data integrity protection||Checksum||SHA 256 Hash||Key management, Configuration Management, Change management|
As you can see, every specific security mechanism and component is now directly and traceable linked to business requirements. And that’s one of the ways you demonstrate the value of security using the SABSA framework.
What makes a cyber startup successful? From my working with a number of companies, there are four key areas cyber entrepreneurs should consider:
- Are you passionate about the idea?
- How unique is it?
- Can your intellectual properly be protected?
- Do you have genuine expertise in your domain?
- What do people in your community think of you?
- Do you have a strong network and business skills?
- Do you know your client?
- Do you understand their issues?
- Do they trust you to solve them?
- Are you focusing on the right things?
- Are you measuring the right things?
- Are you incorporating client feedback into the development?
The key here, as you can see, is clients. There is really no way around understanding them, pleasing them and focusing on what they want. This feedback will allow you to pivot where required. Above all, stay focused and avoid premature scaling – don’t do too much too soon.
HutZero, an early-stage entrepreneur bootcamp, kindly prepared a list of books and websites recommended for aspiring cyber startup founders.
The Lean Startup, Eric Reis
Business Model Generation, Alexander Osterwalder, Yves Pigneur
The Mom Test, Rob Fitzpatrick
Lean Analytics, Alistair Croll, Benjamin Yoskovitz
To Sell Is Human, Daniel H. Pink
Start with Why, Simon Sinek
The Purple Cow, Seth Godin
Lean UX, Jeff Gothelf, Josh Seiden
Made to Stick, Chip Heath, Dan Heath
The Four Steps to the Epiphany, Steve Blank
Do More Faster: Lessons from TechStars, Brad Feld, David Cohen
Fundraising Field Guide, Carlos Espinal
Wired Threat Level
Krebs On Security
The Next Web
Tech City News
Buffer Blog (marketing)
Fred Wilson’s Blog, A VC
Brad Feld’s Blog (Techstars)
KissMetrics Blog (marketing)
Both Sides of the Table
I’ve recently completed an assignment for one of the largest companies in Saudi Arabia where I had the pleasure of helping my clients improve their cyber security posture. During my time there I had the opportunity to explore this beautiful country, learn about its rich history and make a few friends.
And in case you are wondering how an Arabic keyboard looks like, here you go: